踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!

  前言

  导出Excel文件这个功能,通常都是在后端实现返回前端一个下载链接,但有时候我们只想导出前端页面上已经有了的数据,不想再调后端导出接口浪费服务器资源,学习本文demo例子,我们踹掉后端,直接在前端导出Excel!

 

  代码实现

  1、利用Blob对象构造一个a标签的href链接,从而实现文件下载,Excel支持html格式,因此我们只需要将构造好的html内容放到Blob对象中,即可下载Excel表格

  2、利用base64编码构造一个a标签的href链接,从而实现文件下载,同上,我们需要将构造好的html内容URI编码拼到base64链接,即可下载Excel表格

    //blob、base64转文件下载,通过A标签模拟点击,设置文件名
    /*
        万能流  application/octet-stream
        word文件  application/msword
        excel文件  application/vnd.ms-excel
        txt文件  text/plain
        图片文件  image/png、jpeg、gif、bmp
     */
    function downloadByBlob(fileName, text) {
        let a = document.createElement("a");
        a.href = URL.createObjectURL(new Blob([text], {type: "application/octet-stream"}));
        a.download = fileName || 'Blob导出测试.txt';
        a.click();
        a.remove();
        URL.revokeObjectURL(a.href);
    }
    function downloadByBase64(fileName, text) {
        let a = document.createElement('a');
        a.href = 'data:application/octet-stream;base64,' + window.btoa(unescape(encodeURIComponent(text)));
        a.download = fileName || 'Base64导出测试.txt';
        a.click();
        a.remove();
        URL.revokeObjectURL(a.href);
    }

  封装导出Excel表格方法

    //踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!
    function exportExcel(fileName,columns,datas){
        //列名
        let columnHtml = "";
        columnHtml += "<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">\n";
        for (let key in columns) {
            columnHtml += "<td style=\"background-color:#bad5fd\">"+columns[key]+"</td>\n";
        }
        columnHtml += "</tr>\n";

        //数据
        let dataHtml = "";
        for (let data of datas) {
            dataHtml += "<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">\n";
            for (let key in columns) {
                dataHtml += "<td>"+data[key]+"</td>\n";
            }
            dataHtml += "</tr>\n";
        }

        //完整html
        let excelHtml = "<html xmlns:o=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office\"\n" +
            "      xmlns:x=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:excel\"\n" +
            "      xmlns=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40\">\n" +
            "<head>\n" +
            "   <!-- 加这个,其他单元格带边框 -->" +
            "   <xml>\n" +
            "        <x:ExcelWorkbook>\n" +
            "            <x:ExcelWorksheets>\n" +
            "                <x:ExcelWorksheet>\n" +
            "                    <x:Name></x:Name>\n" +
            "                    <x:WorksheetOptions>\n" +
            "                        <x:DisplayGridlines/>\n" +
            "                    </x:WorksheetOptions>\n" +
            "                </x:ExcelWorksheet>\n" +
            "            </x:ExcelWorksheets>\n" +
            "        </x:ExcelWorkbook>\n" +
            "   </xml>\n" +
            "   <style>td{font-family: \"宋体\";}</style>\n" +
            "</head>\n" +
            "<body>\n" +
            "<table border=\"1\">\n" +
            "    <thead>\n" +
            columnHtml +
            "    </thead>\n" +
            "    <tbody>\n" +
            dataHtml +
            "    </tbody>\n" +
            "</table>\n" +
            "</body>\n" +
            "</html>";

        //下载
        downloadByBlob((fileName || "导出Excel")+".xls",excelHtml);
    }

 

  效果演示

  导出txt文档

downloadByBlob("downloadByBlob-导出txt文档.txt","downloadByBlob\n导出txt简单测试\n");
downloadByBase64("downloadByBase64-导出txt文档.txt","downloadByBase64\n导出txt简单测试\n");

《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》

《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》  《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》

 

 

  导出Excel表格

exportExcel("xx业务Excel导出", {"id": "编号", "name": "名字", "age": "年龄", "time": "参加工作时间"}, [{
            "id": "A001",
            "name": "张三",
            "age": "18",
            "time": new Date().toLocaleString()
        },{
            "id": "A002",
            "name": "李四",
            "age": "20",
            "time": new Date().toLocaleString()
        }]);

《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》

 

 

  导出word文档也是一样

《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》

 

 

  后记

  参考上我们之前的《FreeMarker模板引擎》,先画好我们想要的文档格式然后转成xml,调用我们封装好的方法,将构造好的xml内容转成文件,实现前端导出复杂格式文档!

  如果有复杂数据,建议还是在后端操作,当然你也可以把数据返回前端在前端导出也行

 

  前端导出Excel主要是利用Bolb、base64,以及Excel支持html格式的特性,这个特性不仅前端可以利用,后端也一样可以,这里也分享一下后端工具类,原理都是一样的

《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》
《踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!》

package cn.huanzi.qch.util;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.*;

/**
 * Excel工具类
 */
public class ExcelUtil {

    /**
     * 导出
     * 无需依赖POI
     */
    /*
        示例:
        try {
            //列名
            LinkedHashMap<String, String> columns = new LinkedHashMap<>(4);
            columns.put("id","编号");
            columns.put("name","名字");
            columns.put("age","年龄");
            columns.put("time","参加工作时间");

            //数据
            List<Map<String, Object>> datas = new ArrayList<>(3);
            HashMap<String, Object> hashMap = new HashMap<>();
            hashMap.put("id","A001");
            hashMap.put("name","张三");
            hashMap.put("age",18);
            hashMap.put("time",new Date());
            datas.add(hashMap);

            //带换行符:&#10;
            HashMap<String, Object> hashMap2 = new HashMap<>();
            hashMap2.put("id","A002");
            hashMap2.put("name","李四&#10;李四1&#10;李四2");
            hashMap2.put("age",20);
            hashMap2.put("time",new Date());
            datas.add(hashMap2);

            HashMap<String, Object> hashMap3 = new HashMap<>();
            hashMap3.put("id","A003");
            hashMap3.put("name","王五");
            hashMap3.put("age",25);
            hashMap3.put("time",new Date());
            datas.add(hashMap3);

            //导出
            ExcelUtil.exportByResponse(this.getResponse(),"Excel导出测试",columns,datas);
            //ExcelUtil.exportByFile(new File("D:\\XFT User\\Downloads\\Excel导出测试.xls"),columns,datas);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
     */
    public static void exportByResponse(HttpServletResponse response, String fileName, LinkedHashMap<String, String> columns, List<Map<String, Object>> datas) throws Exception {
        response.addHeader("Content-disposition", "attachment; filename=" + fileName + ".xls");
        response.setContentType("application/ms-excel");

        StringBuilder sb = exportOfData(columns, datas);

        OutputStream out = response.getOutputStream();
        out.write(sb.toString().getBytes("UTF-8"));
        out.flush();
        out.close();
    }

    public static void exportByFile(File file, LinkedHashMap<String, String> columns, List<Map<String, Object>> datas) {
        StringBuilder sb = exportOfData(columns, datas);

        try (PrintWriter myFile = new PrintWriter(file,"UTF-8")) {
            myFile.println(sb);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.err.println("exportByFile(),操作出错...");
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        System.out.println(file.getName() + ",操作完成!");
    }

    //其他单元格无边框
    private static StringBuilder exportOfData(LinkedHashMap<String, String> columns, List<Map<String, Object>> datas) {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder("<html xmlns:o=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office\"" +
                "      xmlns:x=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:excel\"" +
                "      xmlns=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40\">");

        //加这个,其他单元格带边框
        sb.append("<head>" +
                "    <xml>" +
                "        <x:ExcelWorkbook>" +
                "            <x:ExcelWorksheets>" +
                "                <x:ExcelWorksheet>" +
                "                    <x:Name></x:Name>" +
                "                    <x:WorksheetOptions>" +
                "                        <x:DisplayGridlines/>" +
                "                    </x:WorksheetOptions>" +
                "                </x:ExcelWorksheet>" +
                "            </x:ExcelWorksheets>" +
                "        </x:ExcelWorkbook>" +
                "    </xml>" +
                "   <style>td{font-family: \"宋体\";}</style>" +
                "</head>");

        sb.append("<body>");

        sb.append("<table border=\"1\">");

        //列名
        sb.append("<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">");
        for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : columns.entrySet()) {
            sb.append("<td style=\"background-color:#bad5fd\">" + entry.getValue() + "</td>");
        }
        sb.append("</tr>");

        //数据
        for (Map<String, Object> data : datas) {
            sb.append("<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">");
            for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : columns.entrySet()) {
                Object dataValue = data.get(entry.getKey());

                //如果是日期类型
                if (dataValue instanceof java.util.Date) {
                    dataValue = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss").format(dataValue);
                }
                sb.append("<td>" + dataValue.toString() + "</td>");
            }
            sb.append("</tr>");
        }

        sb.append("</table>");

        sb.append("</body>");

        sb.append("</html>");

        return sb;
    }

    //前端导出Excel
    /*
        示例:
         exportExcel("xx业务Excel导出", {"id": "编号", "name": "名字", "age": "年龄", "time": "参加工作时间"}, [{
            "id": "A001",
            "name": "张三",
            "age": "18",
            "time": new Date().toLocaleString()
        },{
            "id": "A002",
            "name": "李四",
            "age": "20",
            "time": new Date().toLocaleString()
        }]);
     */
    /*
        //blob、base64转文件下载,通过A标签模拟点击,设置文件名
        //万能流  application/octet-stream
        //word文件  application/msword
        //excel文件  application/vnd.ms-excel
        //txt文件  text/plain
        //图片文件  image/png、jpeg、gif、bmp
        function downloadByBlob(fileName, text) {
            let a = document.createElement("a");
            a.href = URL.createObjectURL(new Blob([text], {type: "application/octet-stream"}));
            a.download = fileName || 'Blob导出测试.txt';
            a.click();
            a.remove();
            URL.revokeObjectURL(a.href);
        }
        function downloadByBase64(fileName, text) {
            let a = document.createElement('a');
            a.href = 'data:application/octet-stream;base64,' + window.btoa(unescape(encodeURIComponent(text)));
            a.download = fileName || 'Base64导出测试.txt';
            a.click();
            a.remove();
            URL.revokeObjectURL(a.href);
        }
    
        //踹掉后端,前端导出Excel!
        function exportExcel(fileName,columns,datas){
            //列名
            let columnHtml = "";
            columnHtml += "<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">\n";
            for (let key in columns) {
                columnHtml += "<td style=\"background-color:#bad5fd\">"+columns[key]+"</td>\n";
            }
            columnHtml += "</tr>\n";
    
            //数据
            let dataHtml = "";
            for (let data of datas) {
                dataHtml += "<tr style=\"text-align: center;\">\n";
                for (let key in columns) {
                    dataHtml += "<td>"+data[key]+"</td>\n";
                }
                dataHtml += "</tr>\n";
            }
    
            //完整html
            let excelHtml = "<html xmlns:o=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office\"\n" +
                    "      xmlns:x=\"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:excel\"\n" +
                    "      xmlns=\"http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40\">\n" +
                    "<head>\n" +
                    "   <!-- 加这个,其他单元格带边框 -->" +
                    "   <xml>\n" +
                    "        <x:ExcelWorkbook>\n" +
                    "            <x:ExcelWorksheets>\n" +
                    "                <x:ExcelWorksheet>\n" +
                    "                    <x:Name></x:Name>\n" +
                    "                    <x:WorksheetOptions>\n" +
                    "                        <x:DisplayGridlines/>\n" +
                    "                    </x:WorksheetOptions>\n" +
                    "                </x:ExcelWorksheet>\n" +
                    "            </x:ExcelWorksheets>\n" +
                    "        </x:ExcelWorkbook>\n" +
                    "   </xml>\n" +
                    "   <style>td{font-family: \"宋体\";}</style>\n" +
                    "</head>\n" +
                    "<body>\n" +
                    "<table border=\"1\">\n" +
                    "    <thead>\n" +
                    columnHtml +
                    "    </thead>\n" +
                    "    <tbody>\n" +
                    dataHtml +
                    "    </tbody>\n" +
                    "</table>\n" +
                    "</body>\n" +
                    "</html>";
    
            //下载
            downloadByBlob((fileName || "导出Excel")+".xls",excelHtml);
        }
     */
}

View Code

    原文作者:huanzi-qch
    原文地址: https://www.cnblogs.com/huanzi-qch/p/16149773.html
    本文转自网络文章,转载此文章仅为分享知识,如有侵权,请联系博主进行删除。
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