001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了

安装git

下载Git
下载好后,一路next即可
安装好后,打开Git bash,进行配置

首先配置自己的身份

git config --global user.name "Name"
git config --global user.email "name@gmail.com"  

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

检查是否配置成功:

git config --global user.name 
git config --global user.email 

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

创建代码仓库

仓库是用于保存版本管理所需信息的地方,所有本地提交的代码都会被提交到代码仓库中,如果有需要还可以再推送到远程仓库中。

若要为某项目建立代码仓库,则在git bash中,进入该项目根目录下,然后执行git init即可:

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

进入对应目录,看到生成了一个.git隐藏文件夹,表示仓库创建成功
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
如果想要删除本地仓库, 只需要删除这个.git隐藏文件即可

提交本地代码:

代码仓库创建完成之后即可提交代码,提交代码只需要使用add和commit两个命令即可

  • add命令用于添加想要提交的代码
  • commit则是真正去执行提交操作

例如:

//添加build.gradle文件

git add build.gradle

// 添加app目录

git add app

// 添加所有文件

git add .

现在本地仓库内的所有文件都已经添加好了,可以进行一次提交了,执行如下命令:

git commit -m “First commit”

注意:在commit命令之后,我们一定需要通过-m参数来加上提交的描述信息,没有描述信息的提交被认为是不合法的。
执行完上条命令,所有的代码都已经成功提交了!

查看修改内容

git status
在项目根目录下执行 git status命令,就可以通过Git来查看自上次提交后哪些文件有变化

知道了哪些文件有变化,要如何知道这些文件具体变动了什么呢?
需要用到git diff命令

git diff

如果需要知道具体某个文件变动了什么,

git diff + 文件名称
例如:
git diff app/src/main/java/com/example/mosesmin/MainActivity.java

撤销未提交也未添加的修改

如上文所述:

  • 所谓提交,即执行了git commit命令
  • 所谓添加,即执行了git add命令

要撤销未提交也未添加的修改,用chekout命令

git checkout

例如,如果对app/src/main/java/com/example/mosesmin/MainActivity.java进行了修改,但是没有执行git add命令添加它,就可以为其执行git diff命令

git diff app/src/main/java/com/example/mosesmin/MainActivity.java

执行了上述命令后,我们对MainActivity.java 这个文件所做的修改就应该被撤销了,我们重新运行一下git status命令,检查一下,可以发现,项目中没有任何可以提交的文件,说明撤销操作确实是成功了。

撤销未提交已添加的修改

要撤销未提交却已添加的修改,先用reset命令执行一下,取消添加;再执行一遍checkout命令,执行撤销。
如果一个文件已经执行了添加操作

git reset

查看提交记录

查看提交记录,使用git log命令

git log

如果提交记录很多,可以在命令中制定id,并加上 -l参数,表示我们只想看到一条记录,如下所示:

git log 提交记录id号 -l

如果想要查看查询的这条提交记录中具体修改了什么内容,可以在命令中加入 -p参数,命令如下所示:

git log 提交记录id号 -l -p

查询的结果中,减号代表删除的部分,加号代表增加的部分

分支的用法

回顾一下上文,如果需要对某项目进行创建仓库和提交项目项目代码到仓库,则执行下述命令

git init
git add .
git commit -m “First Commit”

分支的概念:
分支是版本控制中比较高级且比较重要的一个概念,它主要的作用就是在现有代码的基础上开辟一个分叉口,使得代码可以在主干线和分支线上同时进行开发,且相互之间不受影响。
分支的工作原理示例图如下:
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

使用git branch命令查看分支
如果要创建分支,例如执行如下命令:

git branch version1.0

如果是在master分支下,则执行:

git branch -m version1.0

版本库的切换:
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

与远程版本库协作–例如与Github上的仓库协作

去Github上创建一个仓库(详细的创建过程这里不介绍了,不会可以度娘):AndroidProgramming3eMm

创建完成之后的快速指南页面:Quick setup

看到官方推荐的在本地创建新仓库并与Github上AndroidProgramming3eMm仓库关联的操作的步骤,我在每个步骤后加了注释:

echo "# AndroidProgramming3eMm" >> README.md
git init  // 创建仓库,把这个目录变成Git可以管理的仓库
git add README.md // 文件添加到仓库
git commit -m "first commit" //把文件提交到仓库
git branch -M main // 创建分支
git remote add origin https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git // 将本地仓库与远程仓库相关联
git push -u origin main /把本地库的所有内容推送到远程库上

看到其中涉及分支的命令:
git branch -M main

其实以前的命令是:
git branch -m master

之所以github官方有修改,是近年来西方左派的政治正确导致的,特别是2020年的黑命贵运动等,master主人的意思对黑人不友好,所以改为了main主要

我们这里分支沿用:git branch -m master
最后一步推送到远程库:git push -u origin master

如果本地已经有了仓库,与Github上AndroidProgramming3eMm仓库关联的操作的步骤:

git remote add origin https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git
git branch -M main
git push -u origin main

我们本地已经有了仓库,所以操作步骤如下:

git branch -m master //其实也不用这步,因为我们使用Git bash默认的仓库分支就是master
git remote add origin https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git
git push -u origin master // 暂时不确认-u参数的含义

但是我们发现执行 git push -u origin master 后上传代码并没有成功,出现了如下报错信息:

$ git push -u origin master
error: src refspec master does not match any
error: failed to push some refs to ‘https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
因为我们没有对Github账户设置SSH key

为Github账户设置SSH key

cd ~/.ssh //查看C:\Users\用户名.ssh 是否有key
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C “PeterChenjinxu@outlook.com” // 如果没有要自己生成

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
如上图,我们得到提示:

Your identification has been saved in /c/Users/HONOR/.ssh/id_rsa
Your public key has been saved in /c/Users/HONOR/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

表示我们成功生成了key,路径为:/c/Users/HONOR/.ssh/id_rsa.pub,HONOR为用户名,具体到您自己的用户名下查找;我们在该目录下用记事本或其他文本编辑器打开
id_rsa.pub,的到ssh key公钥。
如下图,我们使用SublimeText打开id_rsa.pub
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

之后,切换到github网站,展开个人头像的小三角,点击settings
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
然后打开SSH and GPG keys菜单
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
点击New SSH key新增密钥
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
填上标题,建议跟仓库名称 AndroidProgramming3eMm 保持一致吧,方便日后区分;接着将id_rsa.pub文件中key粘贴到此,最后点击Add SSH key生成密钥吧
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
创建成功:

如此,github账号的SSH keys配置完成。

上传项目到Github

如果已经设置了SSH key,此时执行git push依然出现下图问题,可能是本地仓库为空(注意咯:git是不能管理空的文件夹的,文件夹里必须有文件才能add),或者本地仓库没有正确的项目导致的
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

我们在本地仓库AndroidProgramming3eMm下拷贝一个用Android Studio的标准Android项目GeoQuiz
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》
GeoQuiz结构如下:
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

然后我们执行相关的命令:

git init // 创建仓库,初始化创建成功后你会发现项目里多了一个隐藏文件夹.git,这个目录是Git用来跟踪管理版本库的,一般不要动

git add . // 接着,将所有文件添加到仓库

怕上图中的warning坏事儿,可以再git add一次

git commit -m “001 first commit by MosesMin” //然后,把文件提交到仓库,双引号内是提交注释

git remote add origin https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git // 关联Github上创建的仓库AndroidProgramming3eMm

git push -u origin master // 上传本地代码到Github上创建的仓库AndroidProgramming3eMm

到此,本地代码已经推送到github仓库了,见证成功的时刻到了,我们现在去githubt仓库看看:
刚创建的空项目是这样的:

刷新一下页面,见证成功的时刻来临了,我们的提交注释和提交的本地仓库内容都在了
《001 手把手用Git,Git从入门到上传本地项目到Github,看这篇就够了》

copy记录一下整个过程:
HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm
$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in E:/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm/.git/

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git add.
git: 'add.' is not a git command. See 'git --help'.

The most similar command is
        add

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git add .
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.gitignore.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/compiler.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/copyright/profiles_settings.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/encodings.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/gradle.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/misc.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/modules.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/runConfigurations.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/.gitignore.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/build.gradle.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/proguard-rules.pro.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/androidTest/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/ExampleInstrumentedTest.java.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/AndroidManifest.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/QuizActivity.java.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/layout/activity_quiz.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values-w820dp/dimens.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/colors.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/dimens.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/strings.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/styles.xml.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/test/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/ExampleUnitTest.java.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/build.gradle.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradle.properties.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradle/wrapper/gradle-wrapper.properties.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradlew.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/settings.gradle.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory
warning: LF will be replaced by CRLF in 01_FirstApp/LICENSE.txt.
The file will have its original line endings in your working directory

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git add .

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git commit -m "001 first commit by MosesMin"
[master (root-commit) db96b62] 001 first commit by MosesMin
 35 files changed, 843 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/.DS_Store
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.gitignore
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/compiler.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/copyright/profiles_settings.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/encodings.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/gradle.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/misc.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/modules.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/.idea/runConfigurations.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/.gitignore
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/build.gradle
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/proguard-rules.pro
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/androidTest/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/ExampleInstrumentedTest.java
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/AndroidManifest.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/QuizActivity.java
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/layout/activity_quiz.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/mipmap-hdpi/ic_launcher.png
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/mipmap-mdpi/ic_launcher.png
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/mipmap-xhdpi/ic_launcher.png
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/mipmap-xxhdpi/ic_launcher.png
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/mipmap-xxxhdpi/ic_launcher.png
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values-w820dp/dimens.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/colors.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/dimens.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/strings.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/main/res/values/styles.xml
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/app/src/test/java/com/bignerdranch/android/geoquiz/ExampleUnitTest.java
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/build.gradle
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradle.properties
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradle/wrapper/gradle-wrapper.jar
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradle/wrapper/gradle-wrapper.properties
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradlew
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/gradlew.bat
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/GeoQuiz/settings.gradle
 create mode 100644 01_FirstApp/LICENSE.txt

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git remote add origin https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git push -u origin master
fatal: unable to access 'https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git/': OpenSSL SSL_read: Connection was reset, errno 10054

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$ git push -u origin master
Enumerating objects: 72, done.
Counting objects: 100% (72/72), done.
Delta compression using up to 16 threads
Compressing objects: 100% (44/44), done.
Writing objects: 100% (72/72), 90.81 KiB | 12.97 MiB/s, done.
Total 72 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
To https://github.com/mosesmindev/AndroidProgramming3eMm.git
 * [new branch]      master -> master
branch 'master' set up to track 'origin/master'.

HONOR@MosesMin-HonorMagicbook16pro2021 MINGW64 /e/DownloadFiles/BaiduNetdiskDownload/AndroidStudy/00 PDF/AndroidProgramming3eMm (master)
$

参考:
1、郭霖大牛的《Android第一行代码 第二版》
2、将本地项目上传到github,git操作详细指导,不看后悔深度好文!

    原文作者:皿哥的技术人生
    原文地址: https://www.cnblogs.com/xlfcjx/p/16367158.html
    本文转自网络文章,转载此文章仅为分享知识,如有侵权,请联系博主进行删除。
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